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Intercultural Throughline

The Intercultural Throughline Title

Welcome to the ILI Intercultural Throughline

This ever-evolving, interactive timeline gives our community members and guests an opportunity to contribute to or “pollinate” a timeline of historic and cultural events throughout American History. Our hope is that we may be able to grow together through our collective knowledge and collective pollination. Thank you for interacting with our learning tools so that we can grow together!

1000
Haudenosaunee Creation Story
Artwork showing a person with long dark hair sitting on the shell of a giant turtle in a large body of water. The person is surrounded by different kinds of birds and a few other animals, and they are holding some plants up to the sky.

Kanyen’kehaka Creation Story from Kay Olan’s Version retold by Sha’tekayenton Andrew Bryant Credible Mohawk Entertainment. Haudenosaunee Creation Story

Origin Story of the Inka
Origin Story of the Inka

The chronicler Inka Garcilaso de la Vega recorded the origin story of the Inka and the founding of Cusco, the capital of their great empire, in his “Royal Commentaries of Peru,” published in 1609. According to the Inka origin story, Inti, the sun, sent two of his children—Manco Capac and…
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1519
1619
A Portuguese ship, the São João Bautista brought captive Africans from Angola to the American colonies.
Engraving showing the arrival of a ship and enslaved Africans to the British colony of Virginia.

Sometime in 1619 enslaved Africans arrive near Point Comfort, a coastal port in the British colony of Virginia from the Portuguese colony port city of Luanda, the present day capital of Angola. Over 20 captives were unloaded from the hull of the São João Bautista. America had not become herself,…
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1680
Pueblo Revolt
Image is of a drawing with a person standing and their face turned upwards. In one hand, they are holding a basket with plants standing straight up out of it.

The first and largest Indigenous uprising in so called North America. “The Pueblo people orchestrated the unthinkable: a pan-Indian uprising successfully expelling the Spanish occupiers from the entire Rio Grande region leading to an indigenous cultural and social renaissance.” Learn more from A Brief History of The Pueblo Revolt and…
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1718
1804
Absalom Jones
Absalom Jones

Absalom Jones life defined what service to others looked like. While still enslaved at 16, Absalom worked during the day and went to school at night. Eventually, he earned enough money to “purchase” his wife’s freedom, fourteen years before purchasing his own. He was elected as the first ever African…
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1807
Omar ibn Said
Omar ibn Said

Omar ibn Said was born around 1770 in an African region then called Futa Toro, near the Senegal River, which now forms Senegal’s northern border with Mauritania. After receiving 25 years of schooling in Africa, he was enslaved and transported to Charleston, South Carolina. Not long after his arrival and…
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1811
1811 Slave Revolt Louisiana German Coast – Jan 8-10
1811 Slave Revolt Louisiana German Coast – Jan 8-10

The 1811 German Coast uprising was a revolt of black slaves in parts of the Territory of Orleans on January 8–10, 1811. The uprising occurred on the east bank of the Mississippi River. Learn more: https://www.zinnedproject.org/news/tdih/louisianas-slave-revolt/

1830
Indian Removal Act, 1830

Indian Removal Act — 1830 Signed into law in 1830 by President Andrew Jackson, the Indian Removal Act provided for the general resettlement of Native Americans from east of the Mississippi River to lands west (Indian Territory). Although the removal was supposed to be voluntary, removal became mandatory whenever the…
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1836
1846
1848
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848

A treaty ending the Mexican-American war, defining the present day US-Mexico border by losing the land to the US that included all or parts of modern day Utah, California, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Wyoming, and Texas.

1865
Chinese Americans in the Mississippi Delta
Chinese Americans in the Mississippi Delta

The Chinese first arrived to the MS Delta during the Reconstruction period (1865-1877). The period was a time of considerable turmoil in Mississippi as the state adjusted after the Civil War to the end of slavery and the defeat of the Confederacy. Tensions were high between the Black freedmen and…
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1882
1887
The Dawes Act of 1887
Dawes Act Image

The Dawes Act of 1887 (also known as the General Allotment Act or the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887),[1][2] authorized the President of the United States to survey Native American tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Native Americans. Those who accepted allotments and lived separately from the…
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1893
Illegal Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom
Old black and white photograph of Queen Liliʻuokalani. It is an official photograph and she is in formal dress.

In the nineteenth century, the Hawaiian Kingdom existed as an independent country recognized as such by the United States of America, the United Kingdom, and various other countries, including by exchanges of diplomatic or consular representatives and the conclusion of treaties. As an independent county, the Hawaiian Kingdom entered into…
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1900
Rabbit Foot Minstrels
Rabbit Foot Minstrels

In 1900, Patrick Henry Chappelle, an African American from Florida, produced a musical comedy called “A Rabbit’s Foot,” and by 1902 his Rabbit’s Foot Company was touring as a tent show, though the popular attraction was billed as “too good for a tent.” Rabbit’s Foot was the only African American…
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1913
Moorish Science Temple of America and Nobel Drew Ali
Moorish Science Temple of America and Nobel Drew Ali

Moorish Science Temple of America, U.S. religious movement founded in Newark, N.J., in 1913 by Timothy Drew (1886–1929), known to followers as Noble Drew Ali and also as the Prophet. Drew Ali taught that all blacks were of Moorish origins but had their Muslim identity taken away from them through…
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1917
President Woodrow Wilson signs the Jones-Shafroth Act, making Puerto Rico a U.S. territory
President Woodrow Wilson signs the Jones-Shafroth Act, making Puerto Rico a U.S. territory

President Woodrow Wilson signed the Jones-Shafroth Act (1917) on March 2, 1917, giving Puerto Ricans U.S. statutory citizenship. This act also separated Puerto Rico’s government into Executive, Judicial, and Legislative branches, and endowed Puerto Ricans with a bill of rights. Additionally, the act established an insular bicameral legislature with 19 elected Senate…
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1929
The Mexican Repatriation, 1929-36
The Mexican Repatriation, 1929-36

The Mexican Repatriation was a mass deportation of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans from the United States between 1929 and 1936. Estimates of how many were repatriated range from 400,000 to 2,000,000. An estimated sixty percent of those deported were birthright citizens of the United States. Because the forced movement was based…
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1934
Audre Lorde
Audre Lorde

Audre Lorde was an American writer, womanist, radical feminist, professor, philosopher and civil rights activist. Lorde didn’t balk at labels. She was known for introducing herself with a string of her own: “Black, lesbian, mother, warrior, poet.” To Lorde, pretending our differences didn’t exist—or considering them “causes for separation and suspicion”—was preventing…
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The Indian Reorganization Act of June 18, 1934
The Indian Reorganization Act of June 18, 1934

The Indian Reorganization Act of June 18, 1934, or the Wheeler-Howard Act, was U.S. federal legislation that dealt with the status of Native Americans (known in law as American Indians or Indians). It was the centerpiece of what has been often called the “Indian New Deal”. The major goal was…
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1937
Sterilization of Puerto Rican Women
This is a presentation slide with the title "Puerto Rico: La Operacion." There is a black and white image of a woman smiling while looking at a young child that she is holding. There is also the following text: "Young women were key to labor force — Problem was pregnancy. Result: massive sterilization program. Women coerced into sterilization without being told it was irreversible. By 1968, 1/3 of women childbearing age were sterilized. Emigration and sterilization resulted in population drop with no increase in standard of living."

In 1937, Puerto Rico enacted Law 116, the last eugenics sterilization law passed under United States territorial jurisdiction. Soon after, a program endorsed by the U.S. government began sending health department officials to rural parts of the island advocating for sterilization. The Puerto Rican government fully supported this program, as it…
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1938
1942
1943
The Zoot Suit Riots, Los Angeles, June 3-8, 1943

The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of conflicts on June 3–8, 1943 in Los Angeles, California, United States, which pitted American servicemen stationed in Southern California against Mexican-American youths and other minorities who were residents of the city. It was one of the dozen wartime industrial cities that suffered…
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1947
1949
1950
1954
Operation Wetback, Summer 1954
Operation Wetback, Summer 1954

Operation Wetback was an immigration law enforcement initiative created by Joseph Swing, the Director of the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), in cooperation with the Mexican government. The program was implemented in May 1954 by U.S. Attorney General Herbert Brownell and utilized special tactics to deal with illegal…
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1955
1956
The Indian Relocation Act of 1956
The Indian Relocation Act of 1956

The Indian Relocation Act of 1956 (also known as Public Law 959 or the Adult Vocational Training Program) was a United States law intended to encourage Native Americans in the United States to leave Indian reservations, acquire vocational skills, and assimilate into the general population. Part of the Indian termination…
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1960
The Chicano Art Movement, 1960’s – present
The Chicano Art Movement, 1960’s – present

The Chicano Art Movement represents attempts by Mexican-American artists to establish a unique artistic identity in the United States. Much of the art and the artists creating Chicano Art were heavily influenced by Chicano Movement (El Movimiento) which began in the 1960s. Chicano art was influenced by post-Mexican Revolution ideologies,…
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1962
1966
1967
Solidarity in Service of Global “Beloved Community”; The Friendship of Thich Nhat Hahn & Dr. Martin Luther King
A black and white photo of Thich Nhat Hahn & Dr. Martin Luther King. They both look serious in front of microphones.

“ In January 1967, six months after they first met, Dr. King nominated Thầy for the Nobel Peace Prize, saying, “his ideas for peace, if applied, would build a monument to ecumenism, to world brotherhood, to humanity.”A few months later, on April 4th, 1967, Dr. King quoted Thầy’s book Lotus…
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1968
The East Los Angeles Walkouts or Chicano Blowouts, March 6, 1968
The East Los Angeles Walkouts or Chicano Blowouts, March 6, 1968

The East Los Angeles Walkouts or Chicano Blowouts were a series of 1968 protests by Chicano students against unequal conditions in Los Angeles Unified School District high schools. The first protest took place on March 6, 1968.

The Chicano Moratorium
The Chicano Moratorium

The Chicano Moratorium, formally known as the National Chicano Moratorium Committee, was a movement of Chicano anti-war activists that built a broad-based coalition of Mexican-American groups to organize opposition to the Vietnam War. Led by activists from local colleges and members of the “Brown Berets”, a group with roots in…
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Student and Worker Uprising
May 1968

May. 1968 in Paris, France. Students and Blue Collar Workers met on the streets. Together they dreamt and plan a change of power relationships in schools and factories. The young ones like me learnt how to listen. It also may have been my first understanding of the social power of…
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The American Indian Movement (AIM), founded July, 1968
The American Indian Movement (AIM), founded July, 1968

The American Indian Movement (AIM) is a Native American advocacy group in the United States, founded in July 1968 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. AIM was initially formed to address Native American affirmation, treaty issues, spirituality, and leadership while simultaneously addressing incidents of police harassment and racism against Natives forced to move…
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1969
Rainbow Coalition
A black and white photograph showing four men sitting at a table in front of microphones, with three men standing behind them.

“ The First Rainbow Coalition begins in 1969, when the Chicago Black Panther Party, notably led by Fred Hampton, forms alliances across lines of race and ethnicity with other community-based movements in the city, including the Latino group the Young Lords Organization and the working-class young southern whites of the…
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The Occupation of Alcatraz, November 20, 1969 – June 11, 1971
The Occupation of Alcatraz, November 20, 1969 – June 11, 1971

The Occupation of Alcatraz was an occupation of Alcatraz Island by 89 American Indians and supporters, led by Richard Oakes, LaNada Means, and others. They chose the name Indians of All Tribes (IOAT)[1] and John Trudell was the spokesperson. According to the IOAT, under the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)…
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1974
Navajo-Hopi Struggle to Protect the Big Mountain Reservation, 1974
Navajo-Hopi Struggle to Protect the Big Mountain Reservation, 1974

Navajo-Hopi Struggle to Protect the Big Mountain Reservation In 1974, the federal government partitioned the Big Mountain reservation, where the Hopi and Navajo tribes currently reside, and transferred some of the land to private ownership. Many Hopi and Navajo were relocated to other lands, but some 300 families remain at…
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1976
Black History Month, 1976
Black History Month, 1976

The precursor to Black History Month was created in 1926 in the United States, when historian Carter G. Woodson and the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History announced the second week of February to be “Negro History Week”.[9] This week was chosen because it coincided with the…
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1978
Siembra
The album cover for "Siembra," by Willie Colon and Ruben Blades. It shows four babies in sitting in white space in the middle, surrounded by cartoon sky, trees, grass, and flowers.

Siembra is the second studio album by Rubén Blades and Willie Colón, released by Fania Records in September 7, 1978. It is considered the best selling salsa album in the history of salsa My father asks me, why are you so political? But he forgets he introduced me to this…
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1979
Iranian Hostage Crisis
An image of Ted Koppel in a suit and tie on a TV screen, delivering a news report on Nightline. There is an inset image that says "Day 100" and "Iran."

In 1979 dozens of American diplomats were taken hostage by militant Iranian students in the U.S. Embassy in Tehran soon after the Islamic revolution in Iran. They are held captive for 444 days and over this time the event receives the most extensive coverage on US television of almost any…
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1980
1981
1982
1989
1990
Dogeaters by Jessica Hagedorn
The cover of the book "Dogeaters" by Jessica Hagedorn. It is a collage of drawings, featuring a face in the lower middle of the image, ambiguously expressionless and looking directly at the viewer.

Dogeaters, a novel by author Jessica Hagedorn, was published in March 1990. Winner of an American Book Award and nominated for the National Book Award, it became one of the best-known published creative works by a Filipina American. The title refers to a derogatory stereotype about Filipinos, and the novel…
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1991
1992
LA Riots April and May 1992
LA Riots April and May 1992

The 1992 Los Angeles riots were a series of uprisings that occurred in Los Angeles County in April and May of 1992

1994
The Zapatista Movement: The Fight for Indigenous Rights in Mexico
The Zapatista Movement: The Fight for Indigenous Rights in Mexico

The Zapatista Movement: The Fight for Indigenous Rights in Mexico On 1 January 1994, the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN), an indigenous armed organization, declared war on the Mexican Government, demanding “work, land, housing, food, health, education, independence, liberty, democracy, justice and peace.” The EZLN movement was an eye-opening…
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“I Like it Like That”
A man sits with his arm around a women, and there are two children sitting next to her. They are on long red seat in what looks like a Ferris wheel car. They look happy together.

“I Like It Like That” is a 1994 American comedy-drama film about the trials and tribulations of a young Puerto Rican man and a half Jamaican half Puerto Rican woman living in a poverty-stricken New York City neighborhood in the South Bronx. The film stars Lauren Velez, Jon Seda, Lisa…
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California Proposition 187, November 8, 1994
California Proposition 187, November 8, 1994

California Proposition 187 (also known as the Save Our State (SOS) initiative) was a 1994 ballot initiative to establish a state-run citizenship screening system and prohibit illegal immigrants from using non-emergency health care, public education, and other services in the State of California. Voters passed the proposed law at a…
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1995
The Gustafsen Lake standoff, August-September 1995
The Gustafsen Lake standoff, August-September 1995

The Gustafsen Lake standoff was a confrontation between the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and the Ts’peten Defenders in the interior of British Columbia, Canada, at Gustafsen Lake (known as Ts’peten in the Shuswap language). The standoff began on August 18, 1995, and ended on September 17, 1995. The RCMP…
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1998
Smoke Signals (film)
American Indian Diversity In Film. An official movie image, with the title "Smoke Signals" and three people with long dark hair, smiling in front of a desert landscape.

“Smoke Signals” was marketed as the first feature film written, directed, and produced by Native Americans. It is an important movie for Indian Country and marked a big moment when Native people could see themselves reflected on the big screen. In 2018 it was added to the National Film Registry.…
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Michelle Kwan at the 1998 Nagano Winter Olympics
Michelle Kwan at the 1998 Nagano Winter Olympics

Michelle Kwan takes second at the 1998 Nagano Winter Olympics and all Asian Americans are mad about it, forever.

Hurricane Hugo Hits SC September, 1989
Hurricane Hugo Hits SC September, 1989

Hurricane Hugo in Charleston, SC. It impacted the low wealth people who did not have insurance and small businesses. It impacted the poor Black Neighborhoods which were not protected against looting the same way as the other neighborhoods. Here on the picture a ILI fellow is going to check her…
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2003
2005
2011
Grace Lee Boggs Publishes ‘The Next American Revolution: Sustainable Activism for the 21st Century’
Grace Lee Boggs Publishes ‘The Next American Revolution: Sustainable Activism for the 21st Century’

Movement leader Grace Lee Boggs wrote The Next American Revolution: Sustainable Activism for the Twenty First Century with Scott Kurashige at the age of 95. In this powerful, deeply humanistic book, Grace Lee Boggs, a legendary figure in the struggle for justice in America, shrewdly assesses the current crisis—political, economical,…
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2013
2014
2017
Death of Flushing Massage Worker Yang Song & Red Canary Song Organizing
A sign in Flushing shows a black-and-white photo of Yang Song, who has a slight smile in the photo. The sign has the name "Yang Song" and the text "Rest In Power" underneath. Below Yang Song's face, the sign says, "Yang Song was a 38-year-old Chinese immigrant and sex worker killed by the NYPD during a raid in Flushing last November. No NYPD officers have been disciplined or charged with any crime." The sign also says #DecrimNow #RightsNotRaids and #JusticeForYangSong

38-year old Yang Song, a Flushing massage worker, fell four stories to her death during a New York Police Department raid on November 25, 2017. Song’s family revealed that she described being sexually assaulted by a man who flashed a badge and gun and claimed to be an undercover cop…
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2019
Chief Hoskin announces the appointment of a Cherokee Nation delegate to Congress
An image of Kim Teehee speaking in front of a microphone.

Cherokee Nation Principal Chief Chuck Hoskin Jr. announced that the tribe is taking a historic initial step to enact the Cherokee Nation’s treaty right to send a delegate to the U.S. Congress. The Cherokee Nation delegate is referenced in both the Treaty of Hopewell from 1785 and the Treaty of…
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Puerto Rican Governor Ricardo Rosselló Resigns After Massive Protests
close up of protesters in Puerto Rico holding the now-iconic black and white Puerto Rican flag of resistence

Hundreds of thousands of Puerto Ricans filled miles of a major highway in San Juan in protest against Gov. Ricardo A. Rosselló, who has resisted persistent calls for his resignation, in what appeared to be one of the largest demonstrations the island has seen. The protests arose in response to…
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2020
McGirt v. Oklahoma overturned
An image of the base of architectural columns that might be in front of a courthouse. There is also the following text: "McGirt v. Oklahoma Supreme Court Decision Affirms Tribal Sovereignty, Upholds Treaty Rights." In the bottom corner of the image is the logo for the Arizona State University American Indian Policy Institute.

In 2020 the U.S. Supreme Court overturned the conviction of child rapist Jimcy McGirt on the grounds that the Creek Nation’s reservation was never disestablished for criminal jurisdiction. State courts no longer have the authority to prosecute crimes committed by or against Oklahomans who are also tribal members. Hundreds of…
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2022
Everything Everywhere All At Once
Everything Everywhere All At Once

Michelle Yeoh stars as a Chinese American mother being audited by the Internal Revenue Services (IRS) for her failing laundry business, only to discover that she must connect with parallel universe versions of herself to prevent a powerful being from destroying the multiverse. It’s a genre-defying film that combines martial…
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Kiyoshi Kuromiya
A black and white picture of Kiyoshi Kuromiya in a button-down shirt, smiling at the camera.

Kiyoshi Kuromiya was a leading activist and organizer around the issues of justice for people living with HIV/AIDS, who lived in Philadelphia, PA for most of his life. His work, while focused, was intersectional and cross-issue, as he worked to make survival easier for people with HIV/AIDS. It wasn’t until…
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